Microwave radiometric measurements over bare fields of different surface roughnesses were made at the frequencies of 1.4 GHz, 5 GHz, and 10.7 GHz to study the frequency dependence as well as the possible time variation of surface roughness. The presence of surface roughness was found to increase the brightness temperature of soils and reduce the slope of regression between brightness temperature and soil moisture content. The frequency dependence of the surface roughness effect was relatively weak when compared with that of the vegetation effect. Radiometric time series observation over a given field indicated that field surface roughness might gradually diminish with time, especially after a rainfall or irrigation. This time variation of surface roughness served to enhance the uncertainty in remote soil moisture estimate by microwave radiometry. Three years of radiometric measurements over a test site revealed a possible inconsistency in the soil bulk density determination, which turned out to be an important factor in the interpretation of radiometric data.